The Green Book

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Internal control helps an entity run its operations efficiently and effectively, report reliable information about its operations, and comply with applicable laws and regulations. Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government, known as the "Green Book," sets the standards for an effective internal control system for federal agencies.

View the Current Green Book

View the 1999 Green Book

On September 10, 2014 GAO issued its revision of Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government. You can read the press release here. The 2014 revision will supersede GAO/AIMD-00-21.3.1, Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government: November 1999.

Legislative Authority

Federal Managers' Financial Integrity Act (FMFIA) requires that federal agency executives periodically review and annually report on the agency's internal control systems. FMFIA requires the Comptroller General to prescribe internal controls standards. These internal control standards, first issued in 1983, present the internal control standards for federal agencies for both program and financial management.

State, Local, and Not-For-Profit Applicability

The Green Book may also be adopted by state, local, and quasi-governmental entities, as well as not-for-profit organizations, as a framework for an internal control system.

Effective Date

GAO's 2014 revision will be effective beginning with fiscal year 2016 and the FMFIA reports covering that year. Management, at its discretion, may elect early adoption of the 2014 Green Book.

Revision Process

Green Book revisions undergo an extensive, deliberative process, including public comments and input from the Green Book Advisory Council. GAO considered all comments and input in finalizing revisions to the standards.

Advisory Council

The Comptroller General of the United States established the Green Book Advisory Council (GBAC) in 2013 to provide input and recommendations for revisions to the Green Book. The GBAC consisted of highly qualified individuals with complementary skills that provided a strong knowledge base in internal controls from entities such as:

  • internal audit community;
  • federal, state, and local government;
  • academia; and
  • organizations that perform financial, compliance, and performance auditing.

GBAC members served two year terms and could be reappointed by the Comptroller General. Below is the list of members emeritus.


Advisory Council Emeritus Members and Term

Sort By Name Sort By Title Sort By Organization Sort By Tenure

Dr. Annette K. Pridgen


Jackson State University


Dr. Brett Baker

Deputy Director Inspector General for Audit

Department of Defense Inspector General


Lisa Casias

Deputy Assistant Secretary of Administration, Office of the CFO

Department of Commerce


Carole Clay

Director, Office of Internal Controls

State Department


Melinda DeCorte


Crowe Horwath LLP


Stephen M. Eells

State Auditor

New Jersey Office of Legislative Services, Office of the State Auditor


Dr. Carol M. Eyermann

Senior Staff Associate
Internal Control Quality Assurance 

National Science Foundation


Bill Hughes


PricewaterhouseCoopers, LLP


Scot Janssen




John Kaschak

Deputy Secretary for Taxation

Pennsylvania Department of Revenue


David L. Landsittel

Chair (past)



The Honorable Samuel T. Mok

Managing Member

Condor International Advisors, LLC


Dan Murrin


Ernst & Young


Dr. Sandra B. Richtermeyer

Associate Dean and Professor of Accountancy

Xavier University


Neil Ryder

Director, Office of Internal Review
and Evaluation

Department of Justice


Peggy Sherry

Deputy Chief Financial Officer

National Credit Union Administration


F. Michael Taylor 

Director of Internal Audit

Hanover County Government, Virginia


David A. Von Moll


Commonwealth of Virginia


David M. Zavada


Kearney & Company




Related Guidance

Managers and auditors may use the Green Book in conjunction with professional guidance issued by GAO and other authoritative bodies.

  • Internal Control Management and Evaluation Tool, GAO-01-1008G, August 2001
  • Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, Internal Control - Integrated Framework, May 2013

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GAO Contacts

For technical or practice questions regarding the Green Book please call (202) 512-9535 or e-mail

Looking to purchase a print copy of the Green Book?
Printed copies of the Green Book will only be available from the U.S. Government Bookstore at the Government Printing Office.