Reports & Testimonies

GAO’s reports and testimonies give Congress, federal agencies, and the public timely, fact-based, non-partisan information that can improve government operations and save taxpayers billions of dollars.

Jump To:

Most Recent Reports

61 - 80 of 57295 Reports

Released on

K-12 Education: Department of Education Should Provide Information on Equity and Safety in School Dress Codes

GAO-23-105348
Published: . Publicly Released: .
Nearly all public school districts require students to adhere to dress codes and often cite safety as the reason. But there are concerns about inequity in dress code rules and enforcement. For example, school dress codes more frequently restrict items typically worn by girls. And rules about hair and head coverings can disproportionately impact Black students and those of certain religions and cultures. Schools that...

Released on

Critical Infrastructure Protection: Additional Federal Coordination Is Needed to Enhance K-12 Cybersecurity

GAO-23-105480
Published: . Publicly Released: .
U.S. schools rely on information technology for many operations. But cybersecurity incidents, like ransomware attacks, could significantly affect everything from educational instruction to school operations. Three federal agencies assist schools in protecting against cyber threats. But there are no formal channels for how agencies coordinate with each other or with K-12 schools to address cybersecurity risks or incidents. Also, the agencies don't measure or obtain...

Released on

Minerais Sources De Conflits: La Paix et la Sécurité Globales dans l'Est de la République Démocratique du Congo ne se sont pas Améliorées depuis 2014

GAO-23-106085
Published: . Publicly Released: .
To see the version of this page in English, see GAO-22-105411. Diverses sources rapportent que l’exploitation minière et le commerce de “minerais de conflit”, tels que l’étain et l’or, contribuent à financer le conflit en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC). Selon nos entretiens avec 10 experts de la RDC, ainsi que notre examen des documents et données des Nations Unies et autres institutions: Les groupes...

FEMA Workforce: Additional Actions Needed to Help Prevent and Respond to Discrimination and Harassment

GAO-23-105243
Published: . Publicly Released: .
A report, based on a 2019 survey, estimated that 29% of FEMA employees experienced workplace discrimination or harassment in the prior year. FEMA has been taking action to address this. FEMA's efforts incorporated many but not all of the practices recommended by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. For example, FEMA provides annual mandatory anti-harassment training to employees, but the training doesn't fully explain how to...

National Security Snapshot: Department of Defense and Intelligence Community Preparedness for Biological Threats

GAO-23-106066
Published: . Publicly Released: .
Biological threats—such as COVID-19 or bioweapons, like anthrax—can cause catastrophic loss of life and global instability. Our work highlights areas relevant to DOD and the Intelligence Community, including preparedness for biological threats and China's intent to exploit U.S. genetic data. We made several key recommendations to improve how DOD and the Intelligence Community prepare for and respond to biological threats. DOD is taking a number...

Federal Vehicle Fleets: Observations on the Transition to Electric Vehicles

GAO-23-105635
Published: . Publicly Released: .
In December 2021, the Biden Administration issued an Executive Order calling for most federal vehicle purchases to be zero-emission vehicles (such as electric vehicles) by 2035. This order affects about 380,000 federal vehicles as they need to be replaced. Agencies may need to acquire about 30,000 zero-emission vehicles each year to meet future fleet requirements. To support widespread electric vehicle use, the federal government may...

Information Technology: Education Needs to Address Student Aid Modernization Weaknesses

GAO-23-105333
Published: . Publicly Released: .
The Department of Education's Next Gen program—started in 2017—aims to modernize the Office of Federal Student Aid's technology and operations to improve the experiences of students, parents, and its partners. FSA has 4 of 9 modernization projects remaining—all of which have had delays. And 3 of the 4 don't have set implementation dates—limiting FSA's ability to retire 2 older systems. In addition, FSA's total reported...

Released on

Persistent Chemicals: EPA Should Use New Data to Analyze the Demographics of Communities with PFAS in Their Drinking Water

GAO-22-105135
Published: . Publicly Released: .
PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) are a group of chemicals used in numerous consumer products—such as nonstick cookware. Most people in the U.S. have been exposed to PFAS, which can be harmful to humans at certain levels. The EPA plans to regulate PFAS in drinking water in 2023. However, it doesn't currently have nationwide information about the demographic characteristics of communities with PFAS in their...

Maternal Health: Availability of Hospital-Based Obstetric Care in Rural Areas

GAO-23-105515
Published: . Publicly Released: .
The number of hospitals providing obstetric services in rural areas has declined since 2014. Over half of rural counties didn't have a hospital that provided these services, as of 2018. This is particularly prevalent in low-income areas, and is associated with problems such as premature births. Experts and other stakeholders said it is difficult for hospitals in rural areas to recruit and retain maternal health...

Maternal Health: Outcomes Worsened and Disparities Persisted During the Pandemic

GAO-23-105871
Published: . Publicly Released: .
Hundreds of women in the U.S. die each year from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. Pregnant women with COVID-19 are more likely to experience complications. We analyzed CDC data and found: Maternal deaths increased during the pandemic compared to 2018 and 2019 COVID-19 contributed to 25% of maternal deaths in 2020 and 2021 The maternal death rate for Black or African-American women was disproportionally...

Working Dogs: Federal Agencies Need to Better Address Health and Welfare

GAO-23-104489
Published: . Publicly Released: .
Federal agencies use about 5,000 working dogs to detect explosives and narcotics, among other things. They also provide about a thousand dogs to foreign countries to support law enforcement and antiterrorism efforts. Federal agencies addressed many of the 18 issues we identified as important to working dog health and welfare, such as exercise and routine veterinary care. But about half of the federally-managed and contractor-managed...

Released on

Immigration Detention: ICE Needs to Strengthen Oversight of Informed Consent for Medical Care

GAO-23-105196
Published: . Publicly Released: .
ICE oversees—and in some cases provides—medical care for people detained in its facilities. Some care is provided onsite and some must be provided offsite, such as at a hospital. ICE must obtain documentation of "informed consent" from people receiving onsite care. Informed consent involves the medical provider speaking to the person in detail about treatment risks, benefits, and alternatives. Medical files that we reviewed generally...

Released on

Older Households: Comparison of Income, Wealth, and Survival in the United States with Selected Countries

GAO-22-103950
Published: . Publicly Released: .
In recent decades, income and wealth disparities have been increasing among older Americans and exceed those in Canada, Germany, and the United Kingdom. We found: In 2007, older Americans in a typical low-income household needed to work 12 years to equal what a typical high-income older household earned in 1 year; there were similar gaps in Germany, where they'd need to work 6 years, and...

Southwest Border: Challenges and Efforts Implementing New Processes for Noncitizen Families

GAO-22-105456
Published: . Publicly Released: .
Border Patrol encountered 1.7 million noncitizens between ports of entry in FY 2021, a 300% increase over FY 2020. To help deal with this increase, Border Patrol created two processes to release families (parents and children under 18) into the U.S. without initiating immigration removal proceedings. This reduced their time in Border Patrol custody. Border Patrol told the families to report to Immigration and Customs...

Public Health Preparedness: HHS Should Address Strategic National Stockpile Requirements and Inventory Risks

GAO-23-106210
Published: . Publicly Released: .
The U.S. Strategic National Stockpile is a multibillion dollar inventory of medical countermeasures—medication, supplies, and more—that can be used in emergencies. COVID-19 underscored its importance. The Department of Health and Human Services' inventory planning reports didn't meet most legal requirements enacted in 2019 or communicate risks associated with not meeting recommended inventory levels. This is partly because HHS hasn't updated its processes for completing the...

Routine Vaccinations: Adult Rates Vary by Vaccine Type and Other Factors

GAO-22-105334
Published: . Publicly Released: .
U.S. school children generally have higher rates of vaccination to protect them from preventable illness compared with adults. We found gaps in adult rates for flu, shingles, tetanus, and pneumococcal (prevents pneumonia and more) vaccines. Among other things: Adults were about 40% more likely to get the tetanus and pneumococcal vaccines than the shingles vaccine Vaccination rates for Black or African American and Hispanic or...

Released on

Army Ammunition: Actions Needed to Improve Management of Procurement and Production Practices

GAO-23-105352
Published: . Publicly Released: .
The Army procures and produces certain types of ammunition (like artillery shells and mortar rounds) for all the military services. Army officials at headquarters and production plants are responsible for managing this effort. However, many of these officials lack clarity about their roles and responsibilities because the Army's governing documents are outdated. This hinders effective decision-making—such as when poor coordination between officials resulted in the...

Federal Fisheries Management: Overfishing Determinations Vary Across Regions, and Data Challenges Complicate Management Efforts

GAO-23-105172
Published: . Publicly Released: .
The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) manages fish stocks in federal waters. This includes working to prevent overfishing and giving fish stocks that are overfished a chance to rebuild. NMFS offices submit information on overfishing and overfished stocks to a central database. But this database has some limitations—like not allowing staff to easily analyze trends over multiple years, which can be useful for tracking the...

Released on

Small Business Research Programs: Reporting on Award Timeliness Could Be Enhanced

GAO-23-105591
Published: . Publicly Released: .
Agencies that participate in the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer programs have helped small businesses bring new technologies to market—such as a low-cost, energy-efficient alternative to fluorescent lights. However, agencies do not always make these awards on time. This can be a problem for small businesses because they rely on timely issuance of these awards to plan their work. We recommended...

Released on

COVID Relief: SBA Could Improve Communications and Fraud Risk Monitoring for Its Arts and Entertainment Venues Grant Program

GAO-23-105199
Published: . Publicly Released: .
The Small Business Administration created a grant program to help businesses in the arts and entertainment industries, which were hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that: SBA approved awards for 73% of businesses that applied Over 90% of the awards went to businesses with 50 or fewer employees But, many applicants noted program problems—from frequently changing guidance to hard-to-access customer service. In addition...